Page 1 | 35 Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
Literal & Interpretive Translation Presented by H.D. Goswami Translations by H.D. Goswami, by Barbara Stoler Miller, by Chris Hartranft
Page 2 | 35 Table of Contents of Yoga Sutras Introduction
Chapter 1: Concentration (Samadhi Pada)
What is Yoga? (1.1-1.4) Un-coloring your thoughts (1.5-1.11) Practice and non-attachment (1.12-1.16) Types of concentration (1.17-1.18) Efforts and commitment (1.19-1.22) Contemplation on AUM or OM (1.23-1.29) Obstacles and solutions (1.30-1.32) Stabilizing and clearing themind (1.33-1.39) After stabilizing the mind (1.40-1.51).
Chapter 2: Practices (Sadhana Pada) .
Minimizing gross colorings that veil the Self (2.1-2.9) Dealing with subtle impressions that veil the Self (2.10-2.11) Breaking the alliance of karma (2.12-2.25) The 8 rungs of Yoga are for discrimination (2.26-2.29) Yamas and Niyamas, rungs #1 and #2 (2.30-2.34) Benefits from the Yamas and Niyamas (2.35-2.45) Asana or meditation posture, rung #3 of 8 (2.46-2.48) Pranayama and breath control, rung #4 of 8 (2.49-2.53) Pratyahara or sense withdrawal, rung #5 of 8 (2.54-2.55)
Chapter 3: Progressing (Vibhuti Pada)
Dharana, Dhyana, Samadhi (3.1-3.3) Samyama is the finer tool (3.4-3.6) Internal is seen to be external (3.7-3.8) Witnessing subtle transitions with Samyama (3.9-3.16) Divine Powers from Perfect Discipline (3.17-3.37) What to do with subtle experiences (3.38) More attainments from Samyama (3.39-3.49) Renunciation that brings kaivalya or liberation (3.50-3.52) Higher discrimination through Samyama (3.53-3.56)
Chapter 4: Liberation (Kaivalya Pada)
Means of attaining experience (4.1-4.3) Emergence and mastery of mind (4.4-4.6) Actions and karma (4.7-4.8) Subconscious impressions (4.9-4.12) Objects and the 3 gunas (4.13-4.14) Mind perceiving objects (4.15-4.17) Illumination of the mind (4.18-4.21) Buddhi, discrimination, and liberation (4.22-4.26) Breaches in enlightenment (4.27-4.28) Perpetual enlightenment (4.29-4.30) Knowables become few (4.31) Gunas and liberation or Kaivalya (4.32-4.34)
Page 3 | 35 Introduction
The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali succinctly outlines the art and science of Yoga meditation for Self-Realization. It is a process of systematically encountering, examining, and transcending each of the various gross and subtle levels of false identity in the mind field, until the jewel of the true Self comes shining through.
While some translations are literal others are interpretive translation to help present the meaning with clarity.
For example, sutra 1.2 defines Yoga with some 25 English words, rather than only 4 Sanskrit words.
The practices of the Yoga Sutras are extremely practical, though it can seem quite complicated when trying to sort through the language. By providing expanded, interpretive translations, the practical meaning of the suggestions more easily comes through. The individual transliterated Sanskrit words also have a large number of English translations, so as to give a more thorough understanding.
When Patanjali codified, or compiled the Yoga Sutras, it was not that a new system was created, but rather, the ancient practices were summarized in an extremely organized and terse way. While the Yoga Sutras are thought to be as old as 400 BCE, archaeological, astronomical, meterological evidence and other texts suggest that the methods described in the Yoga Sutras were being practiced as early as 3000 BCE. Oral tradition states that the period may be even longer.
Yoga means union.
Yoga literally means to yoke, from the root yuj, which means to join; UNCONSCIOUS and CONSCIOUSNESS together.
Sutra means thread, and this thread, or multiple threads weave a tapestry of philosophical insight and direct experience of yoga
The Astangha Yoga system starting from Sutra 2.29 is the most commonly known sutra amongst modern society, which delineates an 8-limbed yoga system starting from voluntarily following observances and self-restraints to get the yogi into a decent moral state, through which the mind becomes peaceful and can focus on the practise of yoga, up to complete absorption in pure awareness, Samadhi.
A clue is given by Patanjali in Sutra 2.45 that even when one has reached the perfect stage of Samadhi, the perfection of that perfect stage (samadhi-siddhir), is: isvara-pranidhanat, devotion to the Supreme.
It is uncommon to catch this point as Krishna explains in the Bhagavad-Gita (7.19) that only a rare, magnanimous yogi catches this point after years and years of existences.
Page 4 | 35 Chapter 1: Concentration (Samadhi Pada)
WHAT IS YOGA? (1.1-1.4)
1.1 atha yoga anushasanam - Now, instruction on yoga. atha = now, at this auspicious moment; implying the transition to this practice and pursuit, after prior preparation; implying a blessing at this moment of transition yoga = of yoga, union; literally, to yoke, from the root yuj, which means to join or to integrate; same as the absorption in samadhi anu = within, or following tradition; implies being subsequent to something else, in this case, the prior preparation shasanam = instruction, discipline, training, teaching, exposition, explanation; Shas implies the imparting of teaching that happens along with discipline
1.2 yogash chitta vritti nirodhah
- Yoga restrains the turnings of the mind.
yoga = of yoga, union; literally, to yoke, from the root yuj, which means to join; same as the absorption in samadhi chitta = of the consciousness of the mind-field vritti = operations, activities, fluctuations, modifications, changes, or various forms of the mind-field nirodhah = control, regulation, channeling, mastery, integration, coordination, understanding, stilling, quieting, setting aside of
1.3 tada drashtuh svarupe avasthanam
- Then the seer stands firm in his own form.
tada = then, at that time; at the time of concentration and meditation drashtuh = the seer's, of the soul, witness, Atman, Self; from the root drsh, which means to see (It is significant to note that Patanjali is not trying to define who is the seer, or the nature of that seer. This is left to be answered or resolved in direct experience.) svarupe = in its own nature, own form or essence; (sva = own; rupa = form) avasthanam = stability, settling, remaining, being in a state, resting, standing, lying, abiding; the root stha means to stand
1.4 vritti sarupyam itaratra
– Otherwise, the form of the mind’s turnings will be assumed vritti = of the operations, activities, fluctuations, modifications, changes, or various forms (of the mind-field) sarupyam = similarity, assimilation, appearance of, identification of form or nature, conformity with the shape of; the root sa means with, and rupa means form itaratra = elsewhere, at other times, when not in that state of realization above
UN-COLORING YOUR THOUGHTS (1.5-1.11)
1.5 vrittayah pancatayah klishta aklishta
- The mind’s turnings are five-fold, painful, or not painful. vrittayah = the vrittis are pancatayah = five fold (and of two kinds); panch means five klishta = colored, painful, afflicted, impure; the root klish means to cause trouble; (klesha is the noun form of the adjective klishta) aklishta = uncolored, not painful, not afflicted, pure; not imbued with kleshas; the root a- means without or in the absence of; hence, without the coloring called klishta
1.6 pramana viparyaya vikalpa nidra smritayah - Judging, misjudging, imagination, sleep, and memory. pramana = real or valid cognition, right knowledge, valid proof, seeing clearly viparyayah = unreal cognition, indiscrimination, perverse cognition, wrong knowledge, misconception, incorrect knowing, not seeing clearly vikalpah = imagination, verbal misconception or delusion, fantasy, hallucination nidra = deep sleep smritayah = memory, remembering
1.7 pratyaksha anumana agamah pramanani - Judgments are [based on] perception, logic and authority. pratyaksha = direct perception or cognition anumana = inference, reasoning, deduction agamah = authority, testimony, validation, competent evidence
Page 5 | 35 pramanani = valid means of knowing, proofs, sources of correct knowing
1.8 viparyayah mithya jnanam atad rupa pratistham - Misjudgment is a false awareness not based on the [real] form of a thing. viparyayah = unreal cognition, indiscrimination, perverse cognition, wrong knowledge, misconception, incorrect knowing, not seeing clearly mithya = of the unreal, of the false, erroneous, illusory jnanam = knowing, knowledge atad = not its own, not that rupa = form, nature, appearance pratistham = based on, possessing, established, occupying, steadfast, standing
1.9 shabda jnana anupati vastu shunyah vikalpah - Devoid of substance, imagination results from a [mere] awareness of words. shabda = word, sound, verbal expression jnana = by knowledge, knowing anupati = following, in sequence, depending upon vastu = a reality, real object, existent shunyah = devoid, without, empty vikalpah = imagination, verbal misconception or delusion, fantasy, hallucination 1.10 abhava pratyaya alambana vritti nidra - Sleep is a turning [of the mind] unsupported by the recognition of an existing thing. abhava = absence, non-existence, non-occurrence, negation, voidness, nothingness pratyaya = the cause, the feeling, causal or cognitive principle, notion, content of mind, presented idea, cognition alambana = support, substratum, leaning on, dependent on, having as a base or foundation vritti = operations, activities, fluctuations, modifications, changes, or various forms of the mind-field nidra = deep sleep 1.11 anubhuta vishaya asampramoshah smritih Memory [in this context] is not the clearing away [from the mind] of [previously] perceived objects. anubhuta = experienced vishaya = objects of experience, impressions asampramoshah = not being stolen, not being lost, not having addition smritih = memory, remembering
PRACTICE AND NON-ATTACHMENT ATTACHMENT (1.12-1.16)
1.12 abhyasa vairagyabhyam tat nirodhah
Restraint of these [turnings of the mind] [comes] through practice and detachment. abhyasa = by or with practice, repeated practice vairagyabhyam = non-attachment, by desirelessness or dispassion, neutrality or absence of coloring, without attraction or aversion tat = of those, through that of nirodhah = control, regulation, channeling, mastery, integration, coordination, understanding, stilling, quieting, setting aside of
1.13 tatra sthitau yatnah abhyasa - Practice means effort in that [endeavor]. tatra = of these two (abhyasa and vairagya) sthitau = stability, steadiness, stable tranquility, undisturbed calmness yatnah = effort, persistent exertion, sustained struggle, endeavour abhyasa = by or with practice, repeated practice
1.14 sah tu dirgha kala nairantaira satkara asevitah dridha bhumih - Now that [practice gains] firm ground when diligently and respectfully performed without interruption and for a long time. sah = that (practice) tu = and, but, however
Page 6 | 35 dirgha = long time (dirgha = long; kala = time) nairantaira = without interruption, continually, satkara = with devotion, sincerity, respect, reverence, positive attitude, right action asevitah = pursued, practiced, cultivated, attended to, done with assiduous attention dridha-bhumih = stable, solid foundation, firmly rooted, of firm ground (dridha = firm; bhumih = ground)
1.15 drista anushravika vishaya vitrishnasya vashikara sanjna vairagyam - Detachment is defined as the control achieved by one who does not thirst after objects [personally] seen or heard about [from others].
drista = seen, perceived anushravika = revealed, scriptural, heard in tradition vishaya = objects, subjects, matters of experience vitrishnasya = of one who is free from desire or craving vashikara = supreme, mastery, total control sanjna = awareness, consciousness, knowing vairagyam = non-attachment, desirelessness, dispassion, neutrality or absence of coloring, without attraction or aversion
1.16 tat param purusha khyateh guna vaitrshnyam
After that, through knowledge of the Person, one is freed of thirst for [material] qualities.
tat = that param = is higher, superior, supreme, transcendent purusha = pure consciousness, Self khyateh = through knowledge, vision, discernment guna = elements, prime qualities, constituents, attributes; (three gunas of sattvas, rajas, tamas) vaitrshnyam = state of freedom from desire or craving (for the gunas)
TYPES OF CONCENTRATION (1.17-1.18)
1.17 vitarka vichara ananda asmita rupa anugamat samprajnatah By following reason, analysis, bliss, I-am-ness, and beauty, one achieves full consciousness. vitarka = gross thought or reasoning vichara = subtle thought ananda = bliss, ecstasy asmita = I-ness, individuality rupa = appearances, nature, form anugamat = accompanied by, associated with samprajnatah = cognitive absorption, lower samadhi 1.18 virama pratyaya abhyasa purvah samskara shesha anyah Another comes to that consciousness first by the practice of trusting in the termination [of material consciousness] and at the end through [actual] purification. virama = cessation, stopping, receding pratyaya = cause, cognitive principle, content of mind, cognition abhyasa = practice purvah = preceding, coming before samskara = deep impressions, imprints in the unconscious, deepest habits, subliminal activators, traces shesha = residual, subliminal anyah = the other (the other samadhi)
EFFORTS AND COMMITMENT (1.19-1.22)
1.19 bhava pratyayah videha prakriti layanam
For those merged in disembodied nature (celestial nature), awareness of material existence. bhava = objective existence, becoming pratyayah = cause, cognitive principle, content of mind, cognition videha = bodiless, disembodied prakriti = creative cause, subtlest material cause, nature layanam = dissolved, merged into 1.20 shraddha virya smriti samadhi prajna purvakah itaresham
Page 7 | 35 For others, [the method is] prioritizes faith, prowess, memory, trance and wisdom. shraddha = unconditional faith, trust, confidence, belief, certainty virya = energy, strength of will smriti = memory, intentful remembrance, mindfulness samadhi = deep absorption of meditation, entasy prajna = wisdom, discernment, super cognitive purvakah = preceding, coming before, prerequisite itaresham = of other people
1.21 tivra samvega asannah - For the extremely intense, it is near. tivra = rate is fast, speedy samvega = momentum, force, vigor, conviction, enthusiasm asannah = very close, near, speedy
1.22 mridu madhya adhimatra tatah api visheshah How near depends on whether the practice is mild, moderate, or intense. [Chris Hartranft] mridu = mild, slow madhya = medium, middling adhimatra = intense, strong tatah = from that api = also visheshah = differentiation, distinction
CONTEMPLATION ON ONTEMPLATION ON AUM OR OM (1.23-1.29)
1.23 ishvara-pranidhanad va - Or [wisdom is achieved] through devoted meditation on the Lord. ishvara = creative source, pure consciousness, purusha, God, supreme Guru or teacher pranidhana = practicing the presence, sincerity, dedication, devotion, surrender of fruits of practice va = or
1.24 klesha karma vipaka ashayaih aparamristah purusha-vishesha ishvara The Lord is a distinct person untouched by trouble, karma, material consequences and conditioning. klesha = colored, painful, afflicted, impure; the root klish means to cause trouble karma = actions, vipaka = fruits of, maturing, ripening ashayaih = by the vehicles, resting place, storage of traces, propensities, accumulations aparamristah = untouched, unsmeared purusha-vishesha = a consciousness, a special or distinct purusha (purusha = a consciousness; vishesha = special, distinct) ishvara = creative source, God, supreme Guru or teacher
1.25 tatra niratishayam sarvajna bijam - There [in Him] is the unexcelled seed of omniscience. tatra = there, in that (in that special purusha) niratishayam = unsurpassed, not exceeded by any others, limitless sarvajna = all knowing (sarva = all; jna = knowing) bijam = seed
1.26 purvesham api guruh kalena anavachchhedat Because He is not limited by time, He is the guru even of the ancients. purvesham = of the first, former, earlier, ancient api = too, also guruh = teacher kalena = by time anavachchhedat = not limited by (time), no break or division, continuous
1.27 tasya vachakah pranavah - His speaking is the syllable Om.
Page 8 | 35 tasya = of that vachakah = designator, signifier, indicator, term pranavah = the mantra AUM or OM
1.28 tat japah tat artha bhavanam - Its soft chanting manifests its meaning. tat = its japah = repeated remembrance tat = its artha = meaning bhavanam = understanding with feeling, absorbing, dwelling upon
1.29 tatah pratyak chetana adhigamah api antaraya abhavash cha From this one actually attains internal awareness, and obstacles cease to exist. tatah = thence pratyak = individual chetana = consciousness adhigamah = understanding, realization, attainment api = also antaraya = of obstacles or impediments abhavash = absence, disappearance, removal cha = and, also
OBSTACLES AND SOLUTIONS (1.30-1.32)
1.30 vyadhi styana samshaya pramada alasya avirati bhranti- darshana alabdha-bhumikatva anavasthitatva chitta vikshepa te antarayah
- These are the obstacles that distract the mind: disease, apathy, doubt, carelessness, laziness, lack of detachment, erroneous vision, not achieving a grounded position, and unsteadiness. vyadhi = disease, illness, sickness styana = mental laziness, inefficiency, idleness, procrastination, dullness samshaya = indecision, doubt pramada = carelessness, negligence alasya = sloth, languor, laziness avirati = sensuality, want of non-attachment, non-abstention, craving bhranti-darshana = false views or perception, confusion of philosophies (bhranti = false; darshana = views, perception) alabdha-bhumikatva = failing to attain stages of practice (alabdha = not obtaining; bhumikatva = stage, state, firm ground) anavasthitatva = instability, slipping down, inability to maintain chitta-vikshepa = distractions of the mind (chitta = mind field; vikshepa = distractions, diversions) te = they are, these are antarayah = obstacles, impediments
1.31 duhkha daurmanasya angam-ejayatva shvasa prashvasah vikshepa sahabhuva Misery, melancholy, bodily trembling and troubled breathing accompany these distractions. duhkha = pain (mental or physical) daurmanasya = sadness, despair, dejection, frustration, depression, anguish angam-ejayatva = shakiness, unsteadiness, movement, tremor of the limbs or body (anga = limbs or body) shvasa = inhalation, inspiration (implying irregular inhalation) prashvasah = exhalation, expiration (implying irregular exhalation) vikshepa = distractions sahabhuva = companions, accompaniments, correlates
1.32 tat pratisedha artham eka tattva abhyasah
- To ward off these distractions, there is practice of one truth. tat = those, their pratisedha = prevention, negation, neutralizing, prohibition, opposing, voiding, removal artham = for, for the purpose of, in order to eka = single, tattva = truth, principle, subject, reality
Page 9 | 35 abhyasah = practice, cultivating that habit
STABILIZING AND CLEARING THE MIND ARING THE MIND (1.33-1.39)
1.33 maitri karuna mudita upekshanam sukha duhka punya apunya vishayanam bhavanatah chitta prasadanam
Clarity and peace of mind come from mentally cultivating friendship with the happy, mercy toward the unhappy, joy in piety and neglect of impiety. maitri = friendliness, pleasantness, lovingness karuna = compassion, mercy mudita = gladness, goodwill upekshanam = acceptance, equanimity, indifference, disregard, neutrality sukha = happy, comfortable, joyous duhka = pain, misery, suffering, sorrow punya = virtuous, meritorious, benevolent apunya = non-virtuous, vice, bad, wicked, evil, bad, demerit, non-meritorious, vishayanam = regarding those subjects, in relation to those objects bhavanatah = by cultivating habits, by constant reflection, developing attitude, cultivating, impressing on oneself chitta = mind field, consciousness prasadanam = purified, clear, serene, pleasant, pacified, undisturbed, peaceful, calm
1.34 prachchhardana vidharanabhyam va pranayama Or [it comes] from the expulsion and retention of breath. prachchhardana = gentle exhalation through the nostrils vidharanabhyam = expansion or regulation, control va = or (or other practices in 1.34-1.39) pranasya = of prana
1.35 vishayavati va pravritti utpanna manasah sthiti nibandhani Or by holding the mind in place when object-based activity arises. vishayavati = of the sensing experience va = or (or other practices in 1.34-1.39) pravritti = higher perception, activity, inclinations utpanna = arising, appearing, manifesting manasah = mind, mental, manas sthiti = stability, steadiness, stable tranquility, undisturbed calmness nibandhani = firmly establishes, causes, seals, holds
1.36 vishoka va jyotishmati Or [when such] activity is sorrowless, illuminating. 37. Or when the mind [has] objects free of passion. vishoka = state free from pain, grief, sorrow, or suffering va = or (or other practices in 1.34-1.39) jyotishmati = the bright effulgence, lucidity, luminosity, inner light, supreme or divine light
1.37 vita raga vishayam va chittam Or when the mind [has] objects free of passion. vita = without, devoid of raga = attachment, desires, attraction vishayam = objects of the senses va = or (or other practices in 1.34-1.39) chittam = of the consciousness of the mind-field
1.38 svapna nidra jnana alambanam va Or [when the mind rests on] knowledge from dreams and sleep. svapna = dream (focusing on the nature of the state of dreaming itself, not the content of dreams) nidra = sleep (focusing on the state itself, as an object) jnana = knowledge, study, investigation, awareness, observation alambanam = having as support for attention, object of concentration va = or (or other practices in 1.34-1.39)
1.39 yatha abhimata dhyanat va Page 10 | 35 Or from meditation according to preference. yatha = as, according to abhimata = one's own predisposition, choice, desire, want, like, familiarity, agreeableness dhyanat = meditate on va = or (or other practices above in sutras 1.34-1.39) AFTER STABILIZING THE MIND ZING THE MIND (1.40-1.51)
1.40 parma-anu parama-mahattva antah asya vashikarah One [whose mind is clear and tranquil] has mastery from the smallest particle to the greatest. parma-anu= from the minutest (parma = most; anu = minutest, smallest) parama-mahattva = ultimate magnitude (parama = ultimate, maximum; mahattva = infinity, largeness magnitude) antah = end, extending to asya = of this, of his or hers (who has vashikarah = mastery, power
1.41 kshinna-vritti abhijatasya iva maneh grahitri grahana grahyeshu tat-stha tat-anjanata samapattih When the turnings decrease [in a mind] which [has become] like an excellent jewel, then in the perceiver, the perceiving and the perceived there is a coloring [of the mind] by that which stands near. [This is] samäpatti, accomplished meditation. kshinna-vritti = with modifications of mind weakened (kshinna = weakened; vritti = modifications of mind) abhijatasya = transparent, purified iva = like maneh = of a crystal grahitri = the knower, apprehender, observer grahana = process of knowing or apprehending, instrument of knowing grahyeshu = the knowable, knowledge, apprehended objects tat-stha = remaining in it, being stable on them, on which it stays or rests tat-anjanata = taking on the coloring of that, coalescing with, appearing to take the shape of the object samapattih = engrossment, coincidence, complete absorption, transmute into likeness, total balance
1.42 tatra shabda artha jnana vikalpah sankirna savitarka samapattih - In that state, when samäpatti is filled with imaginings based on knowledge of word-meanings, it is [called] accomplished meditation with speculative doubts. tatra = there, among these, in that shabda = sound, word artha = meaning jnana = knowledge, idea vikalpah = with options sankirna = mixed with, commingled, interspersed savitarka = accompanied with gross thoughts (sa = with; vitarka = gross thoughts) samapattih = engrossment, coincidence, complete absorption, transmute into likeness
1.43 smriti pari-shuddhau svarupa-shunya iva artha-matra nirbhasa nirvitarka - When memory is fully purified, and only the object [of perception] shines forth, then one’s accomplished meditation is devoid of its own identity, without speculative doubts. smriti = of memory pari-shuddhau = upon purification (pari = upon; shuddhau = purification) svarupa-shunya = devoid of its own nature (shunya = devoid; svarupa = its own nature) iva = as it were artha-matra = only the object (artha = object; matra = only) nirbhasa = illuminative, shining brightly nirvitarka = without a gross thought (nir = without; vitarka = gross thought)
1.44 etaya eva savichara nirvichara cha sukshma-vishaya vyakhyata By this alone, accomplished meditation with and without reflection, with a subtle object, is explained. etaya = by this eva = also savichara = accompanied by subtle thoughts (sa = with; vichara = subtle thoughts) nirvichara = devoid of subtle thoughts (nir = without; vichara = subtle thoughts) Page 11 | 35 cha = and sukshma-vishaya = having subtle for their objects (sukshma = subtle; vishaya = objects) vyakhyata = are explained, described, defined
1.45 sukshma vishayatvam cha alinga paryavasanam - Being a subtle object amounts to not having a visible mark. sukshma = subtle vishayatvam = of having as objects cha = and alinga = without a mark or trace, unmanifest prakriti (subtlest matter) paryavasanam = extending up to, ending at
1.46 tah eva sabijah samadhih -These [accomplished meditations] alone are samädhi with seed. tah = these, those, they eva = only sabijah = with seed, seeded samadhih = deep absorption of meditation, entasy
1.47 nirvichara vaisharadye adhyatma prasadah - In mental clarity without reflection, the higher self finds felicity. nirvichara = devoid of subtle thoughts (nir = without; vichara = subtle thoughts) vaisharadye = with undisturbed flow, adhyatma = spiritual, regarding the atman or true Self prasadah = purity, luminosity, illumination, clearness
1.48 ritambhara tatra prajna -In that state, wisdom bears truth. ritambhara = filled with higher truth, essence, supreme cognition tatra = there prajna = knowledge, wisdom, insight
1.49 shruta anumana prajnabhyam anya-vishaya vishesha-arthatvat - Because it has a special purpose, this wisdom has a different focus than the wisdom of scripture and logical inference. shruta = testimony, heard, learned, from tradition anumana = inference, reasoning, deduction prajnabhyam = from those kinds of knowledge anya-vishaya = having different objects (anya = different; vishaya = objects, fields, realms, domains) vishesha-arthatvat = relating to particular objects, purpose, or significance
1.50 tajjah samskarah anya samskara paribandhi A mental impression born of this wisdom obstructs other mental impressions. tajjah = arising or producing from that samskarah = deep impressions, residual imprints, activating imprints anya = of other samskara = deep impressions, residual imprints, activating imprints paribandhi = impeding, obstructing, reducing, opposing, inhibiting
1.51 tasya api nirodhe sarva nirodhat nirbijah samadhih When even this is restrained, then because everything is restrained, there is samädhi without seed. tasya = of that api = too nirodhe = receding, mastery, coordination, control, regulation, setting aside of sarva = of all nirodhat = through nirodhah (nirodhah = control, regulation, channeling, mastery, integration, coordination, understanding, stilling, quieting, setting aside of) nirbijah = without a seed, seedless (nir = without; bijah = seed) samadhih = deep absorption of meditation, entasy
Page 12 | 35 Chapter 2: Practices (Sadhana Pada) MINIMIZING GROSS COLORINGS THAT VEIL THE RINGS THAT VEIL THE SELF (2.1-2.9)
2.1 tapah svadhyaya ishvara-pranidhana kriya-yogah - Action-yoga is austerity, Vedic study, and devotion to God. tapah = accepting the purifying aspects of painful experience, purifying action, training the senses svadhyaya = self-study in the context of teachings, remembrance of sacred word or mantra ishvara = creative source, causal field, God, supreme Guru or teacher pranidhana = practicing the presence, dedication, devotion, surrender of fruits of practice kriya-yogah = yoga of practice, action, practical yoga
2.2 samadhi bhavana arthah klesha tanu karanarthah cha - Its purpose is to affect samadhi and diminish pain. samadhi = deep absorption of meditation, the state of perfected concentration bhavana = to bring about, cultivate arthah = for the purpose of klesha = colored, painful, afflicted, impure tanu-karana = minimize, to make fine, attenuate, weaken arthah = for the purpose cha = and
2.3 avidya asmita raga dvesha abhinivesha pancha klesha The pains are ignorance, egoism, passion, hate, and willfulness. avidya = spiritual forgetting, ignorance, veiling, nescience asmita = associated with I-ness raga = attraction or drawing to, addiction dvesha = aversion or pushing away, hatred abhinivesha = resistance to loss, fear of death of identity, desire for continuity, clinging to the life of pancha = five klesha = colored, painful, afflicted, impure; the root klish means to cause trouble; (klesha is the noun form of the adjective klishta)
2.4 avidya kshetram uttaresham prasupta tanu vicchinna udaranam Ignorance is the field of the others [whether they are] dormant, diminished, sporadic, [or] prominent. avidya = spiritual forgetting, ignorance, veiling, nescience kshetram = field, breeding ground uttaresham = for the others prasupta = dormant, latent, seed tanu = attenuated, weakened vicchinna = distanced, separated, cut off, intercepted, alternated udaranam = fully active, aroused, sustained
2.5 antiya ashuchi duhkha anatmasu nitya shuchi sukha atman khyatih avidya - Ignorance is to regard the non-permanent as permanent, the impure as pure, unhappiness as happiness, and the non-self as self. antiya = non-eternal, impermanent, ephemeral ashuchi = impure duhkha = painful, sorrowful, suffering anatmasu = non-self, non-atman nitya = eternal, everlasting shuchi = pure sukha = pleasurable, pleasant atman = Self, soul khyatih = taking to be, supposing to be, seeing as if avidya = spiritual forgetting, ignorance, veiling, nescience
2.6 drig darshana shaktyoh ekatmata iva asmita - Egoism [results from] taking the eye and the power of sight to be identical. drig = consciousness itself as seeing agent darshana-shaktyoh = the instrument of seeing, power of intellect or buddhi to observe (darshana = seeing; shakti = power) Page 13 | 35 ekatmata = identity, with oneself (eka = one; atmata = selfness iva = appearing to be, apparently as if asmita = I-ness
2.7 sukha anushayi ragah - Attachment to happiness is passion. sukha = pleasure anushayi = sequential attraction to, closely following, secondary accompaniment, resting on ragah = attachment, addiction
2.8 dukha anushayi dvesha - Attachment to unhappiness is hatred dukha = pain, sorrow, suffering anushayi = sequential attraction to, closely following, secondary accompaniment, resting on dvesha = aversion or pushing away, hatred
2.9 sva-rasa-vahi vidushah api tatha rudhah abhiniveshah Even in a learned person, willfulness, moved by personal sentiments, is deeply rooted. sva-rasa-vahi = flowing on its own momentum (sva = own; rasa = inclination, momentum, potency; vahi = flowing) vidushah = in the wise or learned person api = even tatha = the same way rudhah = firmly established abhiniveshah = resistance to loss, fear of death of identity, desire for continuity, clinging to the life of DEALING WITH SUBTLE IMPRESSIONS THAT VEIL THE SELF (2.10-2.11)
2.10 te pratipasava heyah sukshmah - The subtle pains are to be given up by reversing their course te = these pratipasava = involution, resolving back into the cause from which they arose heyah = to be overcome, reduced, abandoned, destroyed, eliminated sukshmah = subtle 2.11 dhyana heyah tat vrittayah - Their turnings are to be given up by meditation. dhyana = meditation heyah = to be overcome, reduced, abandoned, destroyed tat = that vrittayah = operations, activities, fluctuations, modifications, changes, or various forms of the mind-field BREAKING THE ALLIANCE OF KARMA (2.12-2.25)
2.12 klesha-mula karma-ashaya drishta adrishta janma vedaniyah The accumulation of karma has its root in these pains, and is to be known through seen and unseen births. klesha-mula = having colorings as its origin (klesha = colored, painful, afflicted, impure; mula = origin, root) karma-ashaya = repository of karma (karma = actions stemming from the deep impressions of samskaras; ashaya = repository, accumulation, deposit, vehicle, reservoir, womb) drishta = seen, visible, experienced consciously, present adrishta = unseen, invisible, only experienced unconsciously, future janma = in births vedaniyah = to be experienced 2.13 sati mule tat vipakah jati ayus bhogah When the root exists, it ripens into birth, a term of life, and mundane experiences. sati = since being here, being present, existing mule = to be at the root tat = of that vipakah = ripening, fruition, maturation Page 14 | 35 jati = type of birth, species, state of life ayus = span of life, lifetime bhogah = having experience, resulting enjoyment 2.14 te hlada-paritapa-phalah punya apunya hetutvat Because they are the cause of piety and impiety, their fruits are joy and suffering. te = they, those (referring to those who take birth, as in the last sutra) hlada-paritapa-phalah = experiencing pleasure and pain as fruits (hlada = pleasure, delight; paritapa = pain, agony, anguish; phalah = fruits) punya = virtuous, meritorious, benevolent apunya = non-virtuous, vice, bad, wicked, evil, bad, demerit, non-meritorious hetutvat = having as their cause (the punya or apunya) 2.15 parinama tapa samskara duhkhaih guna vrittih virodhat cha duhkham eva sarvam vivekinah With the miseries of an ever-changing material world, and because of conflicting modes of nature, everything is only misery to the person of discrimination. parinama = of change, transformation, result, consequence, mutative effect, alteration tapa = anxiety, anguish, pain, suffering, misery, torment samskara = subtle impressions, imprints in the unconscious, deepest habits duhkhaih = by reason of suffering, sorrows guna = of the qualities, gunas of prakriti (sattvas, rajas, tamas) vrittih = operations, activities, fluctuations, modifications, changes, or various forms of the mind-field virodhat = because of reasoning the contradictory cha = and duhkham = because of the pain, suffering, sorrow eva = is only sarvam = all vivekinah = to one who discriminates, discerns 2.16 heyam duhkham anagatam - One should avoid misery not yet come. heyam = to be discarded, avoided, prevented duhkham = pain, suffering, sorrow anagatam = which has not yet come, in the future 2.17 drashtri drishyayoh samyogah heya hetuh Something should be given up because it confuses the seer and the object to be seen. drashtri = of the seer, knower, apprehender drishyayoh = of the seen, knowable samyogah = union, conjunction heya = to be discarded, avoided, prevented hetuh = the cause, reason 2.18 prakasha kriya sthiti shilam bhuta indriya atmakam bhoga apavarga artham drishyam The seeable, characterized by clarity, activity, and state-of-being, constituted of material elements and sense organs, has, as its purpose, [either] material enjoyment or spiritual liberation. prakasha = illumination, light kriya = of activity sthiti = steadiness, inertia, stasis shilam = having the nature of (illumination, activity, steadiness) bhuta = the elements (earth, water, fire, air, space) indriya = powers of action and sensation, instruments, mental sense organs atmakam = consisting of (elements and senses) bhoga = experience, enjoyment apavarga = liberation, freedom, emancipation artham = for the sake of, purpose of, object of drishyam = the seen, the knowable 2.19 vishesha avishesha linga-matra alingani guna parvani The divisions of qualities (of the visible) are specific, unspecific, marked, and unmarked. Page 15 | 35 vishesha = diversified, specialized, particularized, having differences avishesha = undiversified, unspecialized, unparticularized, having no differences linga-matra = undifferentiated, only a mark or trace (linga = mark, trace; matra = only) alingani = without even a mark or trace, undifferentiated subtle matter guna-parvani = state of the gunas (guna = of the qualities, gunas of prakriti; parvani = state, stage, level) 2.20 drashta drishi matrah suddhah api pratyaya anupashyah The seer is simply the power to see. Although the seer is [thus] pure [cognition], the seer, in turn, is to be seen through firm conviction/conception. drashta = the seer drishi-matrah = power of seeing (drishi = seeing; matrah = power) suddhah = pure api = even though, although pratyaya = the cause, the feeling, causal or cognitive principle, notion, content of mind, presented idea, cognition anupashyah = appearing to see 2.21 tad-artha eva drishyasya atma [Existing] for the sake of the seer alone is the soul of the visible. tad-artha = the purpose for that, to serve as (tad = that; artha = purpose) eva = only drishyasya = of the seen, knowable atma = essence, being, existence 2.22 krita-artham prati nashtam api anashtam tat anya sadharanatvat - Although the visible has lost [its value] to [a yogi] whose purpose is accomplished, it has not lost [its value] because it is generally relevant to other people. krita-artham = one whose purpose has been accomplished (krita = accomplished; artham = purpose) prati = towards, with regard to nashtam = ceased, dissolved, finished, destroyed api = even, although anashtam = has not ceased, not dissolved, not finished, not destroyed tat = that anya = for others sadharanatvat = being common to others, due to commonness 2.23 sva svami saktyoh svarupa upalabdhi hetuh samyogah – [Mis-] Identifying [the seer and the seen] is the cause of perceiving the powers of the possessed and the possessor as having [the same] nature. sva = of being owned svami = of being owner, master, the one who possesses saktyoh = of the powers svarupa = of the nature, own nature, own form (sva = own; rupa = form) upalabdhi = recognition hetuh = that brings about, the cause, reason samyogah = union, conjunction 2.24 tasya hetuh avidya - The cause of this [misidentification] is ignorance tasya = of that (of that alliance, from last sutra) hetuh = that brings about, the cause, reason avidya = spiritual forgetting, ignorance, veiling, nescience 2.25 tat abhavat samyogah abhavah hanam tat drishi kaivalyam - When that [ignorance] does not exist, the [mis- ]identification does not exist. Letting go of that [way of] seeing is liberation. tat = its abhavat = due to its disappearance, lack or absence (of that ignorance in the last sutra) samyogah = union, conjunction abhavah = absence, disappearance, dissolution hanam = removal, cessation, abandonment tat = that drishi = of the knower, the force of seeing kaivalyam = absolute freedom, liberation, enlightenment
Page 16 | 35 THE 8 RUNGS OF RUNGS OF YOGA ARE FOR DISCRIMINATION (2.26-2.29)
2.26 viveka khyatih aviplava hana upayah - The way to let go is undeviating awareness of the distinction between seer & seen viveka-khyatih = discriminative knowledge (viveka = discriminative, discernment; khyatih = knowledge, correct cognition, clarity, awareness) aviplava = undisturbed, without vacillation, uninterrupted hana = of removal, of avoidance upayah = the means, way, method 2.27 tasya saptadha pranta bhumih prajna - The final stage of that process is the seven-fold wisdom. tasya = to one, to such a person saptadha = sevenfold pranta = final, ultimate bhumih = stage, level, degree prajna = discrimination, insight, wisdom, cognizing consciousness 2.28 yoga anga anusthanad ashuddhi kshaye jnana diptih a viveka khyateh - By practicing the limbs of yoga, when impurity is destroyed, there is the light of knowledge from the perception of true distinctions. yoga-anga = rungs of yoga (yoga = yoga; anga = rungs, limbs, accessories, components, steps, parts, members, constituents) anusthanad = by the sustained practice, observance, performance ashuddhi = impurities kshaye = with the elimination, destruction jnana = of wisdom, knowledge, diptih = light, brilliance, shining, radiance a = until, up to viveka-khyatih = discriminative knowledge (viveka = discriminative, discernment; khyatih = knowledge, correct cognition, clarity, awareness) 2.29 yama niyama asana pranayama pratyahara dharana dhyana samadhi ashtau angani - The eight limbs [of yoga] are restraint, observance, sitting, breath control, withdrawal, concentration, meditation, and trance. yama = codes of restraint, abstinences, self-regulations niyama = observances, practices, self-training asana = meditation posture (from the root ~as, which means "to sit") pranayama = expansion of breath and prana, regulation, control pratyahara = withdrawal of the indriyas (the senses), bringing inward dharana = concentration dhyana = meditation samadhi = meditation in its higher state, deep absorption of meditation, the state of perfected concentration ashtau = eight angani = rungs, limbs, accessories, components, steps, parts, members, constituents YAMAS AND NIYAMAS, RUNGS #1 AND #2 (2.30-2.34)
2.30 ahimsa satya asteya brahmacharya aparigraha yama - The restraints are non-injury, truth, not stealing, chastity, nonpossessiveness. ahimsa = non-violence, non-harming, non-injury satya = truthfulness, honesty asteya = non-stealing, abstention from theft brahmacharya = walking in awareness of the highest reality, continence, remembering the divine, practicing the presence of God aparigraha = non-possessiveness, non-holding through senses, non-greed, non-grasping, non-indulgence, nonacquisitiveness yama = codes of restraint, abstinences, self-regulations
2.31 jati desha kala samaya anavachchhinnah sarva-bhaumah maha-vratam [These restraints] are universal, not limited by birth, place, time and circumstances. They are the great vow. Page 17 | 35 jati = type of birth, species, state of life desha = space, place kala = time samaya = circumstance, condition, consideration anavachchhinnah = not limited by sarva-bhaumah = universal, in all parts (sarva = all; bhaumah = parts, spheres) maha-vratam = great vow (maha = great; vratam = vow) 2.32 shaucha santosha tapah svadhyaya ishvarapranidhana niyamah The observances are cleanliness, satisfaction, austerity, study and devotion to the Lord. shaucha = purity of body and mind santosha = contentment tapah = training the senses, austerities, ascesis svadhyaya = self-study, reflection on sacred words ishvara = creative source, causal field, God, supreme Guru or teacher pranidhana = practicing the presence, dedication, devotion, surrender of fruits of practice niyamah = observances or practices of self-training 2.33 vitarka badhane pratipaksha bhavanam - When harassed by wrong deliberations, one effects the opposite. vitarka = troublesome thoughts, deviating (from the yamas and niyamas) badhane = disturbed by, inhibited by pratipaksha = to the contrary, opposite thoughts or principles bhavanam = cultivate, habituate, thought of, contemplate on, reflect on
2.34 vitarkah himsadayah krita karita anumoditah lobha krodha moha purvakah mridu madhya adhimatrah dukha ajnana ananta phala iti pratipaksha bhavanam - To effect the opposite means to realize that the wrong deliberations, such as injuring others, [whether] done, caused to be done, or permitted, based on greed, anger, or illusion, and mild, medium, or excessive, endlessly produce misery and ignorance. vitarkah = troublesome thoughts, deviating (from the yamas and niyamas) himsadayah = harmful and the others (himsa = harmful; adayah = et cetera, and so forth) krita = committed (by oneself) karita = caused to be done (by others) anumoditah = consented to, approved of (when done by others) lobha = greed, desire krodha = anger moha = delusion purvakah = preceded by mridu = mild, slight madhya = middling adhimatrah = intense, extreme dukha = misery, pain, suffering, sorrow ajnana = ignorance (a = without; jnana = knowledge) ananta = infinite, unending (an = un; anta = ending) phala = fruition, results, effects iti = thus pratipaksha = to the contrary, opposite thoughts or principles bhavanam = cultivate, habituate, thought of, contemplate on, reflect on BENEFITS FROM THE ENEFITS FROM THE YAMAS AND AMAS AND NIYAMAS (2.35-2.45)
2.35 ahimsa pratishthayam tat vaira-tyagah When non-injury is established, then in one’s presence [people] give up enmity. ahimsa = non-violence, non-harming, non-injury pratishthayam = having firmly established, being well grounded in tat = that, of his or her vaira-tyagah = give up hostilities (vaira = hostility, enmity, aggression; tyaga = abandon, give up) 2.36 satya pratisthayam kriya phala ashrayatvam - When truth is established, action and its fruit have a valid basis. satya = truthfulness, honesty pratisthayam = having firmly established, being well grounded in kriya = actions phala = fruition, results, effects Page 18 | 35 ashrayatvam = come as a result of, are dependent on, are subservient to (the Yogi) 2.37 asteya pratisthayam sarva ratna upasthanam - When non-theft is established, all riches are near at hand. asteya = non-stealing, abstention from theft pratisthayam = having firmly established, being well grounded in sarva = of all ratna = jewels, treasures upasthanam = appear, come, approach to him or her, are available, present themselves 2.38 brahmacharya pratisthayam virya labhah - When chastity is established, one gains potency. brahmacharya = walking in awareness of the highest reality, absolute reality, remembering the divine, practicing the presence of God; continence pratisthayam = having firmly established, being well grounded in virya = strength, vigor, vitality, courage labhah = is acquired, attained, gained 2.39 aparigraha sthairye janma kathanta sambodhah - With steadiness in non-possessiveness [comes] awareness of the how of birth. aparigraha = non-possessiveness, non-holding through senses, non-greed, non-grasping, non-indulgence, nonacquisitiveness sthairye = upon being steady in, stability janma = birth, incarnation kathanta = how and from where sambodhah = complete knowledge of 2.40 sauchat sva-anga jugupsa paraih asamsargah From cleanliness, [comes] aversion to one’s own body and avoidance of intimate contact with other [bodies]... sauchat = by cleanliness, purification (of body and mind) sva-anga = one's own body (sva = one's; anga = limbs, body) jugupsa = disinclined, distanced from, drawn away from paraih = and with that of others asamsargah = cessation of contact, non-association 2.41 sattva shuddhi saumanasya ekagra indriya-jaya atma darshana yogyatvani cha …and purity of being, cheerfulness, focus, victory over the senses, seeing yourself and qualification for yoga. sattva = purest of subtle essence, internal being shuddhi = purification of saumanasya = high-mindedness, cheerfulness, clarity, pleasantness, goodness, gladness ekagra = one-pointedness (eka = one; agra = pointedness, intentness) indriya-jaya = control of the senses (indriya = active and cognitive senses; jaya = control, regulation, mastery) atma = of the Self, center of consciousness darshana = realization, seeing, experiencing yogyatvani = to be fit for, qualified for cha = and 2.42 santosha anuttamah sukha labhah - From satisfaction, one attains the highest happiness. santosha = contentment anuttamah = unexcelled, extreme, supreme sukha = pleasure, happiness, comfort, joy, satisfaction labhah = is acquired, attained, gained 2.43 kaya indriya siddhih ashuddhi kshayat tapasah From austerity, from the destruction of impurity, [comes] the perfection of body and senses. kaya = of the physical body indriya = active and cognitive senses siddhih = attainment, mastery, perfection ashuddhi = of impurities kshayat = removal, destruction, elimination tapasah = training the senses, austerities, ascesis 2.44 svadhyayat ishta samprayogah - From the study of sacred texts, [comes] communion with one’s chosen deity. Page 19 | 35 svadhyayat = self-study, reflection on sacred words ishta = that which is preferred, chosen, predisposed towards samprayogah = connected with, in contact, communion 2.45 samadhi siddhih ishvarapranidhana - From dedication to the Lord [comes] the perfection of samädhi, yoga trance. samadhi = deep absorption of meditation, the state of perfected concentration siddhih = attainment, mastery, accomplishment, perfection ishvara = creative source, causal field, God, supreme Guru or teacher pranidhana = practicing the presence, dedication, devotion, surrender of fruits of practice ASANA OR MEDITATION POSTURE, RUNG #3 OF 8
(2.46-2.48) 2.46 sthira sukham asanam - The [yoga] sitting posture is steady and easy. sthira = steady, stable, motionless sukham = comfortable, ease filled asanam = meditation posture (from the root ~as, which means "to sit") 2.47 prayatna shaithilya ananta samapattibhyam - [This is achieved] by relaxing one’s effort and becoming like Ananta [the divine serpent who rests on the cosmic waters.]. prayatna = tension or effort (related to trying to do the posture) shaithilya = by relaxing, loosening, lessening, slackening ananta = infinite, endlessness samapattibhyam = by focusing attention on, by coalescence, coincidence, merging 2.48 tatah dvandva anabhighata - Then one is unaffected by duality. tatah = then, thereby, thence, from that dvandva = the pairs of opposites, the dualities, dichotomies anabhighata = unimpeded freedom from suffering, without effect or impact, cessation of disturbance PRANAYAMA AND BREATH RANAYAMA AND BREATH CONTROL, RUNG #4 OF 8
(2.49-2.53) 2.49 tasmin sati shvasa prashvsayoh gati vichchhedah pranayamah In that state, one achieves breath control by regulating the course of exhalation and inhalation. tasmin = upon that (perfection of meditation posture) sati = being accomplished shvasa = inhalation prashvsayoh = exhalation gati = of the uncontrolled movements vichchhedah = slowing, softening or braking of the force behind pranayamah = expansion of prana, regulation of breath 2.50 bahya abhyantara stambha vrittih desha kala sankhyabhih paridrishtah dirgha sukshmah “The modification of breath in exhalation, inhalation, and retention is perceptible as deep and shallow breathing regulated by where the breath is held, for how long, and for how many cycles.” bahya = external abhyantara = internal stambha = holding, restraint, suspension, stationary, retention, cessation, transition vrittih = operations, activities, fluctuations, modifications, changes, or various forms of the mind-field desha = place, spot, space, location kala = time, period, duration sankhyabhih = by these three, number, count of paridrishtah = regulated by, observed by dirgha = made long, prolonged, slow sukshmah = and subtle, fine 2.51 bahya abhyantara vishaya akshepi chaturthah “A fourth type of breath control goes beyond the range of exhalation and inhalation.” bahya = external abhyantara = internal vishaya = region, spheres, realms, fields Page 20 | 35 akshepi = going beyond, surpassing, setting aside chaturthah = the fourth 2.52 tatah kshiyate prakasha avaranam - Then illumination’s covering is removed. tatah = then, thereby, thence, from that kshiyate = is destroyed, thinned, diminishes, vanishes prakasha = light, illumination avaranam = veil, covering 2.53 dharanasu cha yogyata manasah - And the mind is fit for the concentrations. dharanasu = for concentration, for dharana cha = and yogyata = fitness, preparedness, qualification, capability manasah = mind PRATYAHARA OR SENSE WITHDRAWAL, RUNG #5 OF 8
(2.54-2.55) 2.54 sva vishaya asamprayoge chittasya svarupe anukarah iva indriyanam pratyaharah When each sense is unfastened from its object, there is a turning inward [pratyähära] of the senses, which seems to imitate/resemble the intrinsic form of the mind. sva = their own vishaya = objects, region, spheres, realms, fields asamprayoge = not coming into contact with, non-conjunction, cessation of engagement chittasya = of the mind field svarupe = own form, own nature (sva = own; rupe = form, nature) anukarah = imitate, resemble, follow, be engaged with iva = like, as though, as it were indriyanam = mental organs of actions and senses (indriyas) pratyaharah = withdrawal of the indriyas (the senses), bringing inward 2.55 tatah parama vashyata indriyanam …comes the greatest control of the senses. tatah = then, thereby, thence, from that parama = highest, supreme, ultimate, perfected vashyata = mastery, control, being willed indriyanam = of the mental organs of actions and senses (indriyas)
Chapter 3: Progressing (Vibhuti Pada) DHARANA, DHYANA, SAMADHI, RUNGS #6, #7, AND #8 (3.1-3.3) 3.1 deshah bandhah chittasya dharana - Concentration is binding consciousness to a [single] place. deshah = place, object, point, spot bandhah = binding to, holding, fixing, uniting chittasya = of the mind, consciousness dharana = concentration, focusing, directing attention 3.2 tatra pratyaya ekatanata dhyanam - Meditation is the state of fixing awareness on a single object. tatra = there, therein (in that place or desha of 3.1) pratyaya = the cause, the feeling, causal or cognitive principle, notion, content of mind, presented idea, cognition ekatanata = one continuous flow of uninterrupted attention (eka = one; tanata = continued directedness) dhyanam = meditation 3.3 tad eva artha matra nirbhasam svarupa shunyam iva samadhih “Pure contemplation is meditation that illumines the object alone, as if the subject were devoid of intrinsic form.” tad = that eva = the same artha = object, place, point matra = only, alone Page 21 | 35 nirbhasam = shines forth, appears svarupa = own form, own nature (sva = own; rupe = form, nature) shunyam = devoid of, empty iva = as if, as it were samadhih = meditation in its higher state, deep absorption of meditation, the state of perfected concentration SAMYAMA IS THE FINER AMYAMA IS THE FINER TOOL (3.4-3.6) 3.4 trayam ekatra samyama “Concentration, meditation, and pure contemplation focused on a single object constitute perfect discipline.” trayam = the three ekatra = together, as one samyama = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken together 3.5 tad jayat prajna lokah - By mastering that [perfect discipline] one beholds wisdom tad = of that jayat = achievement, mastery prajna = light of knowledge, transcendental insight, higher consciousness lokah = flashes, illumines, becomes visible, dawns 3.6 tasya bhumisu viniyogah - This is practiced in stages. tasya = its, of that bhumisu = to the planes, states, stages viniyogah = application, practice INTERNAL IS SEEN TO BE EXTERNAL E EXTERNAL (3.7-3.8) 3.7 trayam antar angam purvebhyah - [In contrast] to the former [limbs], these three are internal limbs. trayam = these three antar = more internal, inner, intimate angam = rungs, limbs, accessories, components, steps, parts, members, constituents (2.28) purvebhyah = preceding, previous 3.8 tad api bahir angam nirbijasya - Even that [set of three] is an external limb of seedless [samädhi]. tad = these, they api = even, also, compared to bahir = outer, external angam = rungs, limbs, accessories, components, steps, parts, members, constituents nirbijasya = seedless samadhi, having no seed (nir = without; bijah = seed) (1.51) WITNESSING SUBTLE TRANSITIONS WITH NSITIONS WITH SAMYAMA (3.9-3.16) 3.9 vyutthana nirodhah samskara abhibhava pradurbhavau nirodhah ksana chitta anvayah nirodhah-parinamah The transformation toward cessation is accompanied by mind-moments of cessation, in which distraction ceases and cessation manifests. vyutthana = emergence, coming out, rising nirodhah = mastery, coordination, control, regulation, setting aside of samskara = subtle impressions, imprints in the unconscious, deepest habits abhibhava = disappearance, subsiding pradurbhavau = manifesting, appearance nirodhah = mastery, coordination, control, regulation, setting aside of ksana = with the moment, instant, infinitesimal time (3.53) chitta = of the consciousness of the mind-field anvayah = connection with, conjunction nirodhah-parinamah = transition to nirodhah (nirodhah = mastery, coordination, control, regulation, setting aside of (1.2); parinamah = transition, transformation, of change, result, consequence, mutative effect, alteration) (2.15) Page 22 | 35 3.10 tasya prashanta vahita samskarat The serene flow of this [transformation] comes from the subliminal impression [of cessation]. tasya = its (referring to the mind in the state of nirodhah-parinamah, in the last sutra) prashanta = undisturbed, steady, continuous, peaceful, calm, tranquil vahita = flow samskara = subtle impressions, imprints in the unconscious, deepest habits 3.11 sarvarathata ekagrata ksaya udaya chittasya samadhi-parinamah Transformation toward samädhi is the diminishing of [attention focused on] all external objects and the arising of [attention focused] on a single point. sarvarathata = many pointedness, all pointedness, experiencing all points ekagrata = one-pointedness ksaya = dwindling, destruction, decay udaya = rising, uprising chittasya = of the consciousness of the mind-field samadhi-parinamah = transition to samadhi (samadhi = meditation in its higher state, deep absorption of meditation, the state of perfected concentration; parinamah = transition, transformation, of change, result, consequence, mutative effect, alteration) 3.12 tatah punah shanta-uditau tulya-pratyayau chittasya ekagrata-parinimah Then again, when peaceful consciousness and arising consciousness are equal, the mind is transforming toward single-pointedness. tatah = then punah = again, sequentially shanta-uditau = the subsiding and arising, past and present tulya-pratyayau = having similar chittasya = of the consciousness of the mind-field ekagrata-parinimah = transition of one-pointedness (ekagrata = one-pointedness; parinamah = transition, transformation, of change, result, consequence, mutative effect, alteration) 3.13 etena bhuta indriyasau dharma laksana avastha parinamah vyakhyatah By this are explained the transformations of properties, characteristics and conditions in material elements and sense organs. etena = by this, by these bhuta = elements indriyasau = mental organs of actions and senses (indriyas) dharma = form, quality laksana = time characteristics avastha = state of old or new, condition parinamah = transition, transformation, of change, result, consequence, mutative effect, alteration vyakhyatah = are described 3.14 shanta udita avyapadeshya dharma anupati dharmi The possessor of properties [manifests in a particular way] as a result of the properties being at rest, active or indefinable. shanta = latent past udita = arising avyapadeshya = indescribable, unpredictable, unmanifest dharma = form, quality, characteristics anupati = closely following, common, conforming with all, contained in dharmi = the object containing the characteristics, substratum, existence 3.15 krama anyatvam parinamah anyatve hetu - The cause of the difference in transformations is the difference of sequences. krama = sequence, succession, order anyatvam = distinctness, different phases parinamah = transition, transformation, of change, result, consequence, mutative effect, alteration, natural laws or functions of nature anyatve = for the distinctness, differentiation hetu = the reason 3.16 parinimah traya samyama atita anagata jnana Page 23 | 35 Knowledge of the past and future result from full control of the three transformations. parinimah = transition, transformation, of change, result, consequence, mutative effect, alteration traya = three samyama = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken together atita = past anagata = future jnana = knowledge DIVINE POWERS FROM PERFECT DISCIPLINE (3.17-3.37) 3.17 shabda artha pratyaya itaretara adhyasat samkara tat pravibhaga samyama sarva bhuta ruta jnana “Confusion arises from erroneously identifying words, objects, and ideas with one another; knowledge of the cries of all creatures comes through perfect discipline of the distinctions between them.” shabda = name of an object, word, sound artha = object implied, meaning pratyaya = idea, concept, conceptual existence itaretara = one another, of each with the others adhyasa = due to the convergence, coincidence, overlaying, interpenetrating, superimposition, commingle samkara = confusion, appearing to be one, mixed together tat = these pravibhaga = distinctions, differentiations, separate samyama = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken together (3.4) sarva = all bhuta = of living being (beings that are in form, as bhuta = five elements) ruta = sounds produced, language, speech jnana = knowledge, meaning 3.18 samskara saksat karanat purva jati jnanam By direct observing of one’s subtle conditioning, [one achieves] knowledge of previous births. samskara = subtle impressions, imprints in the unconscious, deepest habits saksat = direct, immediate contact karanat = perception, experiencing purva = of previous jati = birth, incarnation jnana = knowledge 3.19 pratyayasya para chitta jnana - [By direct observing] of consciousness, [one achieves] knowledge of others’ minds pratyayasya = notions, presented ideas, of the content of the mind, conceptions para = other chitta = of the mental images, consciousness, of the consciousness of the mind-field jnana = knowledge 3.20 na cha tat salambana tasya avisayin bhutatvat - And that [knowledge] does not include knowledge of the objects of [others’] thoughts since such objects are not [one’s own] objects of perception. na = not cha = but tat = that salambana = with support tasya = its avisayin = unperceived, not within reach, not being the subject of, absent from bhutatvat = to be, beingness 3.21 kaya rupa samyama tat grahya shakti tat stambhe chaksuh prakasha asamprayoga antardhanam Through complete restraint of the body form, one becomes invisible by blocking the power to perceive the body, disrupting [the body’s] appearance in the eyes [of observers]. kaya = body rupa = form samyama = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken together (3.4) tat = that grahya = can be perceived, capable of receiving shakti = power, capacity tat = that Page 24 | 35 stambhe = to be checked, suspended chaksuh = of the eye prakasha = light, illumination, visual characteristic asamprayoga = there being no contact, disconnected, separated contact antardhanam = invisibility, disappearance 3.22 etena shabdadi antardhanam uktam- In the same way as described in relation to sight (3.21), one is able to suspend the ability of the body to be heard, touched, tasted, or smelled [J.B Swami] etena = by this shabdadi = sound and others antardhanam = disappearance, suspend, arrest uktam = is explained 3.23 sopakramam nirupakramam cha karma tat samyama aparanta jnanam aristebhyah va Karma [reactions include] those already underway and those not yet begun. By perfect control of karma, or from omens, [one achieves] knowledge of the final end, death. sopakramam = fast to fructify, quick to manifest, immediate, active nirupakramam = slow to fructify, dormant, less ative cha = or karma = action, fruits of action tat = that samyama = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken together (3.4) aparanta = death jnana = knowledge aristebhyah = by portents, foreknowledge va = or 3.24 maitri dishu balani - Focusing with perfect discipline on friendliness, compassion, delight, and equanimity, one is imbued with their energies. maitri = friendliness (and others of 1.33) dishu = et cetera balani = power, strength 3.25 baleshu hasti baladini Focusing with perfect discipline on the powers of an elephant, or other entities, one acquires those powers. baleshu = strength, power hasti = elephants bala = power adini = and the others, et cetera 3.26 pravrittyah aloka nyasat suksma vyavahita viprakrista jnanam From putting light on [the mind’s] activities, comes knowledge of the subtle, hidden, and distant. pravrittyah = higher sensory activity, the inner light aloka = light, flashes, illumines, becomes visible, dawns (3.5) nyasat = by directing, focusing, projecting (through samyama) suksma = subtle vyavahita = hidden, concealed, veiled viprakrista = distant, remote jnana = knowledge 3.27 bhuvana jnanam surya samyamat - Focusing with perfect discipline on the sun yields insight about the universe. bhuvana = realms, universe, regions, subtle worlds jnana = knowledge surya = inner sun samyama = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken together (3.4) 3.28 chandra tara vyuha jnanam - Focusing with perfect discipline on the moon yields insight about the stars’ positions. chandra = on the moon, lunar tara = of the stars vyuha = of the system, arrangement jnana = knowledge Page 25 | 35 3.29 dhurve tad gati jnanam - Focusing with perfect discipline on the polestar yields insight about their movements. dhurve = on the pole-star tad = their gati = movement jnana = knowledge 3.30 nabhi chakra kaya vyuha jnanam Focusing with perfect discipline on the navel energy center yields insight about the organization of the body. nabhi = of the navel chakra = energy center, wheel, plexus kaya = of the body vyuha = of the system, arrangement jnana = knowledge 3.31 kantha kupe ksut pipasa nivrittih - Focusing with perfect discipline on the pit of the throat eradicates hunger and thirst. kantha = of the throat kupe = in the pit of ksut = hunger pipasa = thirst nivrittih = leave, retreat, cease 3.32 kurma nadyam sthairyam - Focusing with perfect discipline on the ‘tortoise channel’, one cultivates steadiness. kurma = tortoise nadyam = pit, tube duct, channel sthairyam = steadiness 3.33 murdha jyotisi siddha darshanam - Focusing with perfect discipline on the light in the crown of the head, one acquires the perspective of the perfected ones. murdha = crown of the head jyotisi = the bright effulgence, lucidity, luminosity, inner light, supreme or divine light siddha = perfected ones, masters darshanam = vision 3.34 pratibhad va sarvam - Or, all these accomplishments may be realized in a flash of spontaneous illumination. pratibha = intuitive light or flash, light of higher knowledge, illumination va = or sarvam = all 3.35 hirdaye chitta samvit Focusing with perfect discipline on the heart, one understands the nature of consciousness. [Chris Hartranft] hirdaye = heart chitta = of the consciousness of the mind-field samvit = knowledge 3.36 sattva purusayoh atyanta asankirnayoh pratyaya avishesah bhogah pararthatvat svartha samyamat purusha-jnanam “Worldly experience is caused by a failure to differentiate between the lucid quality of nature and the spirit. From perfect discipline of the distinction between spirit as the subject of itself and the lucid quality of nature as a dependent object, one gains knowledge of the spirit.” sattva = purity aspect of mind field or chitta, subtlest individuation purusayoh = purusha, pure consciousness atyanta = quite, extremely, totally, completely asankirnayoh = distinct, unmixed, not commingled pratyaya = presented idea, concept, conceptual existence avishesah = with no distinction, absence bhogah = experience pararthatvat = for the interest, existence, purpose of another svartha = for its own, self-interest samyamat = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken together (3.4) Page 26 | 35 purusha = a consciousness, Self jnana = knowledge 3.37 tatah pratibha sravana vedana adarsha asvada varta jayanta Following the knowledge of the spirit, the senses transcendentalise giving rise to divine hearing, divine feeling, divine seeing, divine tasting and divine smelling. [Coalesced translation] tatah = thence pratibha = intuitive light or flash, light of higher knowledge, illumination sravana = higher, transcendental, or divine hearing vedana = higher, transcendental, or divine touch adarsha = higher, transcendental, or divine vision asvada = higher, transcendental, or divine taste varta = higher, transcendental, or divine smell jayanta = proceed, arises, occur, produced WHAT TO DO WITH SUBTLE EXPERIENCES E EXPERIENCES (3.38) 3.38 te samadhau upasargah vyutthane siddhayah These attainments of perfection, to the materialistic mind are obstacles to samadhi. [Coalesced translation]. te = these (attainments) samadhi = meditation in its higher state, deep absorption of meditation, the state of perfected concentration upasrga = obstacles, hindrances, impediments vyutthana = to the outgoing mind, worldly mind siddhi = attainments, powers, perfections, subtle experiences, psychic abilities MORE ATTAINMENTS FROM SAMYAMA (3.39-3.49) 3.39 bandha karana shaithilyat prachara samvedanat cha chittasya para sharira aveshah - By relaxing one’s attachment to the body, and becoming profoundly sensitive to its currents, consciousness can enter another’s body. bandha = bondage, attachment karana = cause shaithilyat = relaxation, letting go, loosening prachara = passages, means of going forth, moving through samvedanat = by knowledge of cha = and chittasya = of the consciousness of the mind-field para = another, other sharira = body aveshah = entering into 3.40 udana jayat jala panka kantaka adisu asangah utkrantih cha From mastery of the vital breath rising in the body, in the head and neck, one can walk through water, mud, thorns, and other obstacles without touching down, but rather floating over them. udana = one of the five prana vayus (upward flow of prana in the body) jaya = by mastery jala = water panka = mud, as in a swamp kantaka = thorn adisu = and with others, et cetera asangah = no contact, no adhesion, cessation of contact utkrantih = rising, ascension, levitation cha = and 3.41 samana jayat jvalanam - By mastering the flow of energy through the solar plexus (the breath of fire in the belly), one becomes radiant. samana = one of the five prana vayus (prana in navel area) jaya = by mastery jvalana = effulgence, radiance, fire 3.42 shrotra akashayoh sambandha samyamat divyam shrotram Page 27 | 35 “By focusing with perfect discipline on the relation between the ear and space, one acquires divine hearing.” shrotra = ear, the power of hearing akasha = space, ether sambandha = over the relation samyama = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken together (3.4) divyam = higher, divine shrotram = ear 3.43 kaya akashayoh sambandha samyamat laghu tula samatatti cha By focusing with perfect discipline on the body’s relationship to space, and developing coalesced concentration on the lightness of cotton, one can travel through space. kaya = body akasha = space, ether sambandha = relationship samyamat = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken together (3.4) laghu = light tula = cotton fiber samatatti = attainment, become one with cha = and 3.44 bahih akalpita vrittih maha-videha tatah prakasha avarana ksayah When consciousness completely disengages from externals - the ‘great disembodiment’ - then the veil that covers the spiritual light is destroyed. bahih = external, outside, passing outward, projected outside akalpita = formless, outside, unimaginable, unidentified, vrittih = operations, activities, fluctuations, modifications, changes, or various forms of the mind-field maha-videha = great one existing without a body, disincarnate tatah = by that prakasha = spiritual light avarana = covering, veil ksayah = removed, destroyed 3.45 sthula svarupa suksma anvaya arthavattva samyamad bhuta-jayah By observing the aspects of matter - gross, subtle, intrinsic, relational, purposive - with perfect discipline, one masters the elements. sthula = gross svarupa = in its own nature, own form or essence; ( sva = own; rupa = form) suksma = subtle, astral anvaya = connectedness, conjunction, connection, interpenetration arthavattva = purposefulness samyama = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken together (3.4) bhuta = the elements (earth, water, fire, air, space) jayah = mastery 3.46 tatah anima adi pradurbhavah kaya sampad tad dharma anabhighata cha Then extraordinary powers appear, including the power to shrink to the size of an atom, as the body attains perfection, transcending physical law. tatah = by that anima = making miniature, atomic size adi = and others (other such powers) pradurbhavah = manifestion of kaya = body sampad = perfection tad = their dharma = characteristics, components anabhighata = non-resistance, without obstruction, indestructible cha = and 3.47 rupa lavanya bala vajra samhanana kaya-sampat This perfection includes beauty, grace, strength, and the durability of a diamond. rupa = form, beauty, appearance Page 28 | 35 lavanya = gracefulness, charm, ability to attract bala = strength, energy vajra = diamond, adamantine, hardness samhanana = ability to bear strokes or hardness kaya-sampat = perfection of the body 3.48 grahana svarupa asmita anvaya arthavattva samyamad indriya jayah By observing the various aspects of the sense organs - their processes of perception, intrinsic natures, identification as self, interconnectedness, purposes - with perfect discipline, one masters them. [Chris Hartranft] grahana = process of perception and action svarupa = in its own nature, own form or essence; ( sva = own; rupa = form) asmita = I-ness, individuality anvaya = connectedness, conjunction, connection, interpenetration arthavattva = purposefulness samyamad = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken together (3.4) indriya = mental organs of actions and senses (indriyas) jayah = mastery 3.49 tatah mano-javitvam virarana-bhavah pradhaua jayah Then, free from the constraints of their organs, the senses perceive with the quickness of the mind, no longer in the sway of the phenomenal world. tatah = by that manas = mind javitva = quickness, speed virarana-bhavah = perception with instrument of perception, i.e., with the body or physical senses pradhaua = the primal cause out of which there is manifestation jayah = mastery RENUNCIATION THAT BRINGS KAIVALYA HAT BRINGS KAIVALYA OR LIBERATION OR LIBERATION (3.50-3.52) 3.50 sattva purusha anyata khyati matrasya sarva-bhava adhisthatrittvam sarva-jnatritvam cha “For one who is attentive to the distinction between the lucid perfection of nature and the spirit, omniscience and power over all states of existence result.” sattva = purity aspect of mind field or chitta, subtlest individuation, purest aspect of buddhi purusha = pure consciousness anyata = distinction between, difference khyati = through knowledge, vision, discernment, correct cognition, clarity, awareness matrasya = only, merely sarva-bhava = over all states or forms of existence, omnipotence (sarva = all; bhava = states or forms of existence) adhisthatrittvam = supremacy sarva-jnatritvam = all knowingness, omniscience (sarva = all; jnatritvam = knowingness) cha = and 3.51 tad vairagya api dosa bija ksaye kaivalyam - When one is unattached even to this omniscience and mastery, the seeds of suffering wither, and freedom of the sprit occurs. tad = that vairagya = desirelessness, non-attachment, dispassion api = also, even dosa = impairment, bondage, defect, imperfection bija = seed ksaya = with the elimination, destruction kaivalyam = absolute liberation, independence, freedom 3.52 sthani upanimantrane sanga smaya akaranam punuh anista prasangat “One should avoid attachment or pride in the enticements of the gods, lest harmful attachments recur.” sthani = celestial beings, those of high spiritual position, presiding deities, devas upanimantrane = invitation, on being invited by sanga = association, coming together with, acceptance, attachment smaya = pride, smile of happiness akaranam = no cause, no reason for action, not entertain Page 29 | 35 punuh = again, repeat, renew, revive anista = undesirable prasangat = possibility of being caught or having connection HIGHER DISCRIMINATION THROUGH THROUGH SAMYAMA (3.53-3.56) 3.53 ksana tat kramayoh samyamat viveka-jam jnanam - “From perfect discipline of moments and their sequence in time, one has the knowledge born of discrimination.” ksana = moment, instant, infinitesimal time (3.9) tat = its krama = sequence, succession samyama = dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi taken together (3.4) viveka = discrimination, discernment ja = born of jnana = knowledge, gnosis 3.54 jati laksana desha anyata anavachchhedat tulyayoh tatah pratipattih “Through that discrimination one can tell two similar things apart, which are similar in origin, have similar characteristics, or similar positions in space jati = genus, species, category, type laksana = time characteristics, appearance, distinctive mark desha = place, position in space anyata = distinction, separateness, difference anavachchhedat = undefined, not separated, indistinguishable tulyayoh = of two similar objects, the same category or class, equal tatah = thereby, from that pratipattih = knowledge distinction, distinguishable knowledge 3.55 tarakam sarva visayam sarvatha visayam akramam cha iti viveka jam jnanam - “Knowledge born of discrimination is transcendent, comprehensive, concerned with all states of things, and instantaneous.” tarakam = transcendent, intuitional, sarva = all visayam = objects, conditions, pursuits sarvatha = in all ways, by all means visayam = objects, conditions, pursuits akramam = beyond succession, non-sequential cha = and iti = this viveka = discrimination, discernment ja = born jnana = knowledge, gnosis 3.56 sattva purusayoh suddhi samye kaivalyam iti “Absolute freedom occurs when the lucidity of material nature and spirit are in pure equilibrium.” sattva = purity aspect of mind field or chitta, subtlest individuation, purest aspect of buddhi purusayoh = pure consciousness suddhi = purity samye = equality kaivalyam = absolute liberation, independence, freedom iti = this, end, finish Chapter 4: Liberation (Kaivalya Pada) MEANS OF ATTAINING EXPERIENCE PERIENCE (4.1-4.3) 4.1 janma osadhi mantra tapah samadhi jah siddhyayah The powers of perfection arise from birth, herbs, mantras, austerities, or pure meditation janma = birth ausadhi = herbs mantra = sound vibrations, incantations, divine word tapah = training the senses, austerities Page 30 | 35 samadhi = deep concentration or entasy jah = born siddhyayah = attainments, powers, perfections, subtle experiences, psychic abilities 4.2 jatyantara parinamah prakriti apurat The transformation into another species comes from the abundance of [a particular] nature. jatyantara = to another type of birth parinamah = transition or transformation prakriti = creative cause, subtlest material cause apurat = by the inflow or filling in process 4.3 nimittam aprayojakam prakritinam varana bhedas tu tatah ksetrikava The instrumental cause does not bring this about; rather it is the division of choices of natures. Thus, it is like the farmer [who chooses to plant certain seeds that grow into different species of plants.]. nimittam = incidental cause or instrument aprayojakam = which do not bring to action prakritinam = creative cause, subtlest material cause varana = obstacles bhedas = breaking through, removing tu = but tatah = that ksetrikavat = like a farmer EMERGENCE AND MASTERY OF MIND OF MIND (4.4-4.6) 4.4 nirmana chittani asmita matrat - “Individual thoughts are constructed from a measure of egoism.” nirmana = produced, created, constructed, forming, arising, emerging chitta = minds, fields of consciousness asmita = I-ness matra = alone, individuality 4.5 pravritti bhede prayojakam chittam ekam anekesam “A single thought produces the diverse activities of many thoughts.”. pravritti = activity, bhede = difference, distinction, diverse prayojakam = causing, directing chitta = mind field eka = one anekesa = other, many, numerous 4.6 tatra dhyana jam anasayam - “A thought born of meditation leaves no trace of subliminal intention (samskaras).” tatra = of these dhyana = meditation jam = born anasayam = without stored impressions, free from karmic vehicles, without deposit of past influences, without laten ACTIONS AND KARMA CTIONS AND KARMA (4.7-4.8) 4.7 karma ashukla akrisnam yoginah trividham itaresam A yogi’s action is not black or white; that of others is black or white, or black and white. The actions of a realized yogi transcend good and evil, whereas the actions of others may be good or evil or both. [Chris Hartranft] karma = actions stemming from the deep impressions of samskaras ashukla = not white akrisnam = nor black yoginah = of a yogi Page 31 | 35 trividham = threefold itaresam = of the others 4.8 tatah tad vipaka anugunanam eva abhivyaktih vasananam “Each color of action leaves memory traces corresponding to the fruition of the action.” tatah = from that, thence tad = that, their vipaka = fruition anugunanam = following, corresponding to, accordingly eva = only abhivyaktih = manifest vasananam = latent potencies, potentials, subliminal imprints SUBCONSCIOUS IMPRESSIONS (4.9-4.12) 4.9 jati desha kala vyavahitanam api anantaryam smriti samskarayoh eka rupatvat The uniformity of memory and subliminal impressions sustains the continuity of subliminal impressions, even through interruptions of birth, place, and time. jati = type of existence, state of life, category of incarnation desha = of locality, space, place kala = of time, moment, point vyavahitanam = being distinct, separated, in between, gap api = even, although anantaryam = uninterrupted sequence smriti = of memory samskarayoh = deep impressions, imprints in the unconscious, deepest habits, subliminal activators, traces eka-rupatvat = because of their sameness, similarity (eka = one; rupatvat = formless) 4.10 tasam anaditvam cha ashisah nityatvat - “These subliminal impressions are without beginning because the desires that sustain them are eternal.” tasam = for these anaditvam = no beginning cha = and ashisah = will to live, desire for life nityatvat = eternal, permanent, perpetual 4.11 Hetu phala ashraya alambana samgrihitatvat esam abhave tad abhavah “Since the subliminal impressions are held together by the interdependence of cause and effect, when these cease to exist, the impressions also cease to exist.”. hetu = cause phala = motive ashraya = substratum alambana = object resting upon samgrihitatvat = held together esam = of these abhave = on the disappearance of tad = them abhavah = disappearance 4.12 atita anagatam svarupatah asti adhva bhedat dharmanam Past and future are in all things since properties of nature move at different tempos. atita = past anagatam = future svarupatah = in reality, in its own form asti = exist adhva = of the paths, conditions bhedat = being a difference dharmanam = characteristics, forms OBJECTS AND THE BJECTS AND THE 3 GUNAS (4.13-4.14) 4.13 te vyakta suksmah guna atmanah “These properties of nature, visible or subtle, are the essence of material things.” Page 32 | 35 te = they, these vyakta = manifest suksmah = subtle guna = elements, prime qualities, constituents, attributes; (three gunas of sattvas, rajas, tamas) atmanah = the nature of, composed of 4.14 parinama ekatvat vastu tattvam “A thing has reality because it remains unique throughout various transformations.” parinama = of change, transformation, result, consequence, mutative effect, alteration ekatvat = due to oneness, uniformity, sameness, coordinated vastu = a reality, real object, existent tattvam = essence, reality, that-ness MIND PERCEIVING OBJECTS (4.15-4.17) 4.15 vastu samye chitta bhedat tayoh vibhaktah panthah - “Although an object remains constant, people’s perceptions of it differ because they associate different thoughts with it.” vastu = a reality, real object, existent samye = sameness chitta = minds, of the consciousness of the mind-field bhedat = diversity, difference tayoh = their, of the two vibhaktah = separation, division panthah = paths, levels of being, ways of perceiving 4.16 na cha eka chitta tantram ched vastu tat pramanakam tada kim syat Will an object not structured within coherent thought still exist though unknown? But the object is not dependent on either of those perceptions; if it were, what would happen to it when nobody was looking? [Chris Hartranft] na = not cha = and eka = one, single chitta = mind, of the consciousness of the mind-field tantram = dependent ched = if vastu = a reality, real object, existent tat = that apramanakam = not cognized tada = then kim = what syat = exists, becomes 4.17 tad uparaga apeksitvat chittasya vastu jnata ajnatam A thing is known or unknown to thought, based on whether thought is colored by it. tad = that, these, thereby uparaga = coloring, conditioning, reflection apeksitvat = due to need chittasya = of the mind, of the consciousness of the mind-field vastu = a reality, real object, existent jnata = known ajnatam = unknown ILLUMINATION OF THE MIND (4.18-4.21) 4.18 sada jnatah chitta vrittayah tat prabhu purusasya aparinamitvat The mind’s turnings are always known to the person who masters them, because that person is not subject to change. sada = always jnatah = are known chitta = of the mind, of the consciousness of the mind-field vrittayah = operations, activities, fluctuations, modifications, changes, or various forms of the mind-field Page 33 | 35 tat = their, that prabhu = master, superior, support of purusasya = pure consciousness aparinamitvat = changelessness, immutable 4.19 na tat svabhasam drishyatvat The [mundane mind] does not illumine itself, since it is an object of [mundane] perception. na = is not tat = it svabhasam = self illuminating (sva = own; abhasa = illumination) drishyatvat = knowability 4.20 eka-samaye cha ubhaye anavadharanam And there is no simultaneous understanding of both [thought and its object]. eka-samaye = at the same time, simultaneously (eka = one; samaye = time, condition) cha = and, nor ubhaye = both anavadharanam = cannot be cognized 4.21 chitta antara drishye buddhi-buddheh atiprasangah smriti sankarah cha If [a thought were] the object of another thought, there would be unjustifiable complexity from one state of mind to another, the chain of such perceptions would regress infinitely, imploding memory. chitta = of the mind, of the consciousness of the mind-field antara = another drishye = seen, perceived buddhi-buddheh = knower of knowledge, perceiver of perception atiprasangah = endless, abundance, ad infinitum smriti = memory, remembering sankarah = confusion, mixing up cha = and BUDDHI, DISCRIMINATION, AND LIBERATION AND LIBERATION (4.22-4.26) 4.22 chitteh apratisamkramayah tad akara apattau sva buddhi samvedanam When consciousness is not mixed and thus takes on its [actual] form, there is awareness of one’s own intelligence. chitteh = of the mind, of the consciousness of the mind-field apratisamkramayah = unchanging, not moving tad = that akara = form apattau = assumed, transformed into, reflection sva = own buddhi = knowing, knower samvedanam = knows, identifies, experience 4.23 drastri drisya uparaktam chittam sarva artham - Colored by seer and seen, thought takes everything as its object. drastri = seer drisya = seen uparaktam = colored chittam = of the mind, of the consciousness of the mind-field sarva = any, all artham = objects 4.24 tad asankheya vasanabhih chittam api parartham samhatya karitvat “Variegated by countless traces of memory, thought works by making associations, for the sake of a purpose beyond itself.” tad = that asankheya = countless vasanabhih = latent potencies, potentials, subliminal imprints, impressions chittam = of the mind, of the consciousness of the mind-field Page 34 | 35 api = though, also parartham = for another samhatya = in combination with karitvat = action 4.25 vishesa darshinah atma bhava bhavana vinivrittih One who sees the distinction ceases to cultivate a self-centered state. vishesa = distinction darshinah = of one who sees atma = Self bhava = in the nature of, in relation to bhavana = projection, feeling, reflection vinivrittih = complete cessation 4.26 tada viveka nimnam kaivalya pragbharam chittam “Then, deep in discrimination, thought gravitates toward freedom.” tada = then viveka = discrimination, discernment nimnam = incline towards kaivalya = liberation, independence from pragbharam = gravitate towards chittam = of the mind, of the consciousness of the mind-field BREACHES IN ENLIGHTENMENT (4.27-4.28) 4.27 tachchhidresu pratyaya antarani samskarebhyah “When there are lapses in discrimination, distracting concepts arise from the store of subliminal impressions.” tachchhidresu = in the intervals, breaks, gaps, between pratyaya = the cause, the feeling, causal or cognitive principle, notion, content of mind, presented idea, cognition antarani = other samskarebhyah = deep impressions, imprints in the unconscious, deepest habits, subliminal activators, traces 4.28 hanam esam kleshavat uktam The destruction of these [distractions] is said to be like [the destruction] of troubles. hanam = removal esam = their kleshavat = like the previous colorings uktam = as has been described PERPETUAL ENLIGHTENMENT (4.29-4.30) 4.29 prasankhyane api akusidasya sarvatha viveka khyateh dharma-meghah samadhih For one who seeks no selfish gain even in quantities [of knowledge], and who perceives distinctions between spirit and matter, there comes the trance of abundance of virtue. prasankhyane = highest knowledge, omniscience api = even akusidasya = having no interest remaining sarvatha = constant, in every way, always viveka-khyateh = discriminative knowledge (viveka = discriminative, discernment; khyateh = knowledge, correct cognition, clarity, awareness) dharma-meghah= rain cloud of virtues (dharma = form, quality, virtues; meghah = cloud) samadhih = deep absorption of meditation, entasy 4.30 tatah klesha karma nivrittih - From this, troublesome actions cease. tatah = thereafter klesha = colored, painful, afflicted, impure Page 35 | 35 karma = actions stemming from the deep impressions of samskaras nivrittih = cease, discontinue, remove KNOWABLES BECOME FEW NOWABLES BECOME FEW (4.31) 4.31 tada sarva avarana mala apetasya jnanasya anantyat jneyam alpam - “Then the infinity of knowledge, released from impurities that obscure everything, leaves little to be known.” tada = then sarva = all avarana = veils, coverings mala = imperfections apetasya = removed jnanasya = knowledge anantyat = infinite jneyam = to be known alpam = little, almost nothing GUNAS AND LIBERATION UNAS AND LIBERATION OR KAIVALYA AIVALYA (4.32-4.34) 4.32 tatah kritarthanam parinama krama samaptih gunanam “This infinite knowledge means an end to the sequence of transformations in material things, their purpose now fulfilled.” tatah = then, by that krita = fulfilled arthanam = purpose parinama = transition, transformation, of change, result, consequence, mutative effect, alteration (2.15, 3.9-3.16) krama = sequence, succession, order (3.15) samaptih = terminate, end gunanam = elements, prime qualities, constituents, attributes; (three gunas of sattvas, rajas, tamas) 4.33 ksana pratiyogi parinama aparanta nigrahyah kramah Sequence corresponds to [a series of] moments perceivable at the end of a process of transformation. ksana = moments pratiyogi = uninterrupted succession parinama = transition, transformation, of change, result, consequence, mutative effect, alteration aparanta = end point, at the end nigrahyah = recognizable, apprehensible, comprehensible kramah = succession, process, course, order, series 4.34 purusha artha sunyanam gunanam pratiprasavah kaivalyam svarupa pratistha va chiti shaktih iti Liberation is a reversal of the course of material things, which are empty of meaning for the spirit; it is also the power of consciousness in a state of true identity. That is all. purusha = pure consciousness, Self artha = purpose, meaning sunyanam = devoid gunanam = elements, prime qualities, constituents, attributes; (three gunas of sattvas, rajas, tamas) pratiprasavah = involution, resolve, recede kaivalyam = absolute freedom, liberation, enlightenment (2.25) svarupa = own form pratistha = established va = or chiti = consciousness shaktih = power iti = the end, finis (to denote the end of the teachings)